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英语兔之从句大攻关

首先,介绍介词

1.介词不单独使用,都是后接名词构成介词短语来使用
2.介词短语一般作状语,还有定语。
状语例子:
I go to school. "to school"是介词短语,作状语修饰 go。
It is a book on the desk.
之前学到过非及物动词后面不能接名词,因为是非及物的,如果要接名词,就得先加个介词。其实就是这个道理。
定语例子:
I have a T-shirt in red. ”in red“ 是介词短语,作为定语修饰T-shirt.

补充小知识:
I go to school. 很好理解。
但是:
I go home. ??? 这是什么玩意?
其实home可以是副词,也就是作为状语修饰go.
I go my home. 这就错了,因为my home 的”home“是个名词了,必须写成I go to my home.

关系代词和关系副词

关系代词
that which who whom whose
关系代词充当从句成分,且要提到从句句首:
This is a carrot that i bought. 其实是I bought that,把that提到句首。
that和which一般情况可以互换,但是有区别:

先行词是唯一的或不可选的用that,先行词是多选一的用which.
The rabbit ate the largest carrot that I’ve ever seen.largest是最大的,所以是唯一的,用that.
除了the largst以外,all/the only/the first这种修饰语也是代表不可选的,用that。

The rabbit ate a carrot which i bought. 这里的carrot就可以是多个,多选一的,用which

关系副词
关系副词在句子中作为副词。
where why when whether 等
使用介词短语等效替换:
where=at/on/in which why=for which when=at/on/in which

限定性形容词从句和非限定性形容词从句(定语从句)
限定:
The rabbit ate the carrot which was on the table.兔子吃了在桌上的胡萝卜
"which was on the table"限定了carrot,重点在说明(限定)是carrot是指桌上的carrot
非限定:
The rabbit ate the carrot,which was on the table.兔子吃了胡萝卜,胡萝卜在桌上。
对胡萝卜的限定没那么强,甚至可以去掉。相当于补充信息,我觉得有点同位语的味道。
再举个例子:
I have a head which is round. 我有一个圆圆的头(暗指我可能还有扁的头,方的头,这只是其中一个)
I have a head, which is round.我有一个头,它是圆的。
非限定性从句一般作为插入语。不仅可以补充(修饰)名词的信息,还可以修饰整个句子。

主语从句:
代词:
That rabbit eate carrot is obvious.
副词:
What rabbit eate is obvious.
where rabbit eate is obvious.

宾语从句:
代词:
I saw that the rabbit ate a carrot.
宾语从句中的that可以省略,但有时候省略后句子意思可能会改变:
I didi’t know that the rabbit ate the carrot and that you saw it.
第一个that可以省略,但是第二个that省略和不省略句子意思是不一样的。
副词:
I saw what the rabbit ate.
I saw where the rabbit ate.
主句时态和宾语从句时态应该是一致的,除非从句是说明一件永恒的或者客观的事实。
永恒的或者客观的事实都用一般现在时,表面这件事不会受到时间/时态的影响。

有争议的从句类型:
I am sure/afraid/happy that there is a carrot on the table.
这到底是说明从句:宾语?同位语?状语?没有统一标准!

表语从句:
代词:
The problem is that the rabbit is hungry.
副词:
The question is what the rabbit should eat.
The question is wehre/when/how the rabbit should eat.

同位语从句:
代词:
The fact that the rabbit ate teh carrot did not surpprise me.
相当于:The fact, the rabbit ate teh carrot, did not surpprise me.
副词:
I have no idea who ate the carrot.

宾补从句:
代词:
副词:
you can call me what you like.

状语从句

状语在句子中作补充信息,可分为九类:

  1. 表时间(如:在…时候)
  2. 表地点(如:在…地方)
  3. 表条件(如:如果…)
  4. 表让步(如虽然…但是…,即使…也…)
  5. 表方式(如:就好像…)
  6. 表比较(如:比…)
  7. 表原因(如:因为…所以…)
  8. 表目的(如:为了…)
  9. 表结果(如:所以…)

表时间:
before / after
when / while / as
since / until / as soon as / the next time

表地点:
where / wherever / anywhere /
The rabbit ate the carrot where he found it.(这是状语从句)
The rabbit ate the carrot at the place where he found it.(这是定语从句)

表比较
than / as …as / the …the
he is smarter than i am.
常被省略成:he is smarter than i.
口语化一般为:he is smarter than me.
This carrot is bigger than that one is.
省略:This carrot is bigger than that one.

He is as smart as i am.
This carrot is as big as that one is.
省略:
He is as smart as me.(口语化了,本来是I)
This carrot is as big as thet one.
也就是说,than和as…as引导的状语从句常省略is

The more you practice English,the more fluent you become.

表条件
if / unless / provided / as long as / in case
If the rabbit sees a carrot,he will eat it.
if i saw a carrot,I would eat it. (这是虚拟语气,不是条件状语从句)
if i had seen a carrot,I would have eaten it.(这是虚拟语气,不是条件状语从句)
区别就是虚拟语气表达与现实相反的条件,主句使用过去式或过去分词。

表让步
even / even if / although / no matter how/what / regardless of
Although I see a carrot,but I will not eat it.这里得把but去掉,因为although引导一个从句,而but是个连词,后应该接一个句子,而不是主句。

表方式
as if / as

表原因:
because / since / as
Since you are hungry,you can eat teh carrot. 既然你饿了,你可以吃胡萝卜。
这里的since跟时间的since,要注意根据语境区分。
As I have thick skin,I am begging you for a thumbs up.显而易见…
这里的as翻译为显而易见,注意跟表方式的区分。

you must really like me,for you have given all my cideos a thmbs-up.这里的for是个连词。

表目的
in order…so that / in order to/that

表结果
so that / so/such…that

知识来源详见所有英语从句,一个视频合集搞定


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