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一文读懂参考基因组和基因组注释+最全下载方法

文章目录

    • 一、什么是参考基因组和基因组注释?
    • 二、参考基因组版本命名
      • 1、常用人参考基因组对应表
      • 2、常用小鼠参考基因组对应表
    • 三、下载
      • 1、NCBI
      • 2、Ensemble
      • 3、GENCODE
      • 4、UCSC
      • 5、iGenomes
    • 四、其他参考基因组信息

一、什么是参考基因组和基因组注释?

先来理一理参考基因组,基因组注释文件间的关系。

自从 1990 启动的家喻户晓的人类基因组计划开始,全世界的科学家竭尽全力破译了第一个完整的人类基因组,从那时开始人类拿到了一本只有 ATCG 四个碱基书写的天书。后续人们逐步完善了基因组序列信息,并写在 Fasta 格式的文本文件“天书”中,这本天书就叫做参考基因组

image.png

但是,直接拿天书来看是一脸懵逼的,于是大家开始利用实验技术手段开始着手解密这本天书,随后大量的基因以及非编码序列被人们详细的标记在参考基因组对应的位置。同时对该位置加入大量的注释细节,最终将这些信息写在 BED,GTF,GFF 格式的基因组注释文件 。所以也可以把基因组注释文件理解为字典,看不懂天书,翻翻字典就懂了。

image.png
随着时间的推移,在更先进技术的加持下,在已经构建好的基因组和注释信息上不断增加,删减,修改,就有了不同的版本。而每一个版本的参考基因组都会对应有一个基因组注释文件(天书和字典一一对应),接下来我们看看参考基因组版本是怎么指定的。

二、参考基因组版本命名

在讲参考基因组之前,需要提到一个组织参考基因组联盟(Genome Reference Consortium),它是由 NCBI,EBI,桑格研究所等机构组成。GRC 利用最佳的技术装配,纠正,增加基因组序列,以此作为在生信分析领域作为参考的基因组。目前,该机构构建了人,小鼠,大鼠,斑马鱼,鸡的参考基因组。

人基因组官名叫 GRCh38 (Genome Reference Consortium Human Build 38),GRCh38 在UCSC基因组浏览器中还有个小名 hg38,这个小名对于大多数人来说是更亲切熟悉的。GRCh38 在 GenBank 中叫 GCA_000001405.15,在 RefSeq 中叫 GCF_000001405.26,虽然 GRC 组织建议在所有出版物和工具中使用该编号,但事实是前两种 GRCh38 和 hg38 对生信分析更常见。

在不更改染色体坐标的情况下,向参考基因组添加或替换新序列,这种打补丁的方式,会在基因组版本后加 .p (patch)来命名。

这就像在王者荣耀,英雄联盟中,为了维持游戏热度,会大幅修改游戏架构,流程,世界观,图片,叫大版本更新,而定期对某些英雄的面板属性修正,作为补丁。

举个例子,GRCh38 的第九个补丁,正式版本叫做 Genome Reference Consortium Human Build 38 patch release 9,简称 GRCh38.p9。在 GenBank 编号为 GCA_000001405.24,RefSeq 编号为 GCF_000001405.35。在 Ensemble 编号为 GRCh38,NCBI 编号为 GRCh38。

1、常用人参考基因组对应表

发布时间201320092006
GRC 官名GRCh38GRCh37GRCh36
UCSChg38hg19hg18
EnsembleGRCh38GRCh37GRCh36
GENCODE38193c
NCBIGRCh38GRCh37GRCh36
GenBankGCA_000001405
RefSeqGCF_000001405

根据 GRC 官网信息,GRCh39 大版本将会无限停更,他们在考虑用新模型和序列来构建人类的参考基因组,细节不清楚,猜测有可能会有泛基因组内容。

2、常用小鼠参考基因组对应表

发布时间202020112007
GRC 官名GRCm39GRCm38
UCSCm39mm10mm9
EnsembleGRCm39GRCm38
GENCODEM27M25M1
NCBIGRCm39GRCm38NCBIM37

三、下载

1、NCBI

这里提供两种下载方式,一种为网页界面下载,另一种为FTP下载。

可视化下载

  • 进入网址

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/browse#!/overview/

  • 搜索物种

image.png

  • 下载界面

image.png

FTP下载

随便提一下,Chrome 浏览器在18版本后由于安全原因已经不支持 ftp 协议,改用 https 协议,可以看到链接已经与之前的不同。

这里以下载人的参考基因组 GRCh38 为例:

https://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/refseq/vertebrate_mammalian/Homo_sapiens/reference/GCF_000001405.39_GRCh38.p13

人类基因组注释文件:

GTF 格式:https://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/refseq/vertebrate_mammalian/Homo_sapiens/annotation_releases/109/GCF_000001405.38_GRCh38.p12/GCF_000001405.38_GRCh38.p12_genomic.gtf.gz

GFF 格式:

https://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/refseq/vertebrate_mammalian/Homo_sapiens/annotation_releases/109/GCF_000001405.38_GRCh38.p12/GCF_000001405.38_GRCh38.p12_genomic.gff.gz

如果以这种方式下载,其实已经可以路径中大概看出相关物种的下载地址,可以自行查询及下载其他物种。

2、Ensemble

可视化下载

  • 网址:http://asia.ensembl.org
  • 点击物种名,进入下载界面

image.png

  • 点击对应名称,下载参考基因组和基因组注释文件

image.png

FTP下载

同样以下载人参考基因组 GRCh38 为例:

http://ftp.ensembl.org/pub/current_fasta/homo_sapiens/dna/Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.dna.toplevel.fa.gz

GTF 文件:http://ftp.ensembl.org/pub/current_gtf/homo_sapiens/Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.104.gtf.gz

GTT 文件:http://ftp.ensembl.org/pub/current_gff3/homo_sapiens/Homo_sapiens.GRCh38.104.gff3.gz

3、GENCODE

如果小伙伴研究的物种只涉及人类和小鼠,极力推荐 GENCOE,这里有着相较其他数据库,最新最全的基因组和其注释信息。

  • 网址:https://www.gencodegenes.org/
  • 点击人类的最新版

image.png

  • 点击下载基因组注释文件

image.png

  • 点击下载参考基因组文件

image.png

4、UCSC

相对其他下载方式,UCSC 本职的工作是做基因组浏览器的,因此也可以从下图看到,在这里可以根据自己定义来下载相对于的基因组区域,比如 prime,exon,gene,transcript等等。

  • 网址:http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgTables
  • 下载:设置参数如下,然后点击下载参考基因组及注释文件

image.png

5、iGenomes

iGenomes是常见分析生物的参考序列和注释文件的集合。这些文件已从Ensembl,NCBI或UCSC下载。染色体名称已更改为简单且与下载源一致。每个iGenome都可以作为压缩文件使用,其中包含生物体的单个基因组构建的序列和注释文件。

网址:https://support.illumina.com/sequencing/sequencing_software/igenome.html

image.png

由亚马逊资助的生物信息参考基因组下载站点,有各种参考基因组,注释文件,软件索引等常用文件,并且有着极快的下载速度,但是缺点是只有常用的物种。

**站点:**https://ewels.github.io/AWS-iGenomes/

image.png

四、其他参考基因组信息

SPECIESUCSC VERSIONRELEASE DATERELEASE NAMESTATUS
MAMMALS
Humanhg38Dec. 2013Genome Reference Consortium GRCh38Available
hg19Feb. 2009Genome Reference Consortium GRCh37Available
hg18Mar. 2006NCBI Build 36.1Available
hg17May 2004NCBI Build 35Available
hg16Jul. 2003NCBI Build 34Available
hg15Apr. 2003NCBI Build 33Archived
hg13Nov. 2002NCBI Build 31Archived
hg12Jun. 2002NCBI Build 30Archived
hg11Apr. 2002NCBI Build 29Archived (data only)
hg10Dec. 2001NCBI Build 28Archived (data only)
hg8Aug. 2001UCSC-assembledArchived (data only)
hg7Apr. 2001UCSC-assembledArchived (data only)
hg6Dec. 2000UCSC-assembledArchived (data only)
hg5Oct. 2000UCSC-assembledArchived (data only)
hg4Sep. 2000UCSC-assembledArchived (data only)
hg3Jul. 2000UCSC-assembledArchived (data only)
hg2Jun. 2000UCSC-assembledArchived (data only)
hg1May 2000UCSC-assembledArchived (data only)
AlpacavicPac2Mar. 2013Broad Institute Vicugna_pacos-2.0.1Available
vicPac1Jul. 2008Broad Institute VicPac1.0Available
ArmadillodasNov3Dec. 2011Broad Institute DasNov3Available
BaboonpapAnu4Apr. 2017Human Genome Sequencing CenterAvailable
papAnu2Mar. 2012Baylor College of Medicine Panu_2.0Available
papHam1Nov. 2008Baylor College of Medicine HGSC Pham_1.0Available
BisonbisBis1Oct. 2014Univ. of Maryland Bison_UMD1.0Available
BonobopanPan3May 2020University of WashingtonAvailable
panPan2Dec. 2015Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology panpan1.1Available
panPan1May 2012Max-Planck Institute panpan1Available
Brown kiwiaptMan1Jun. 2015Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology AptMant0Available
BushbabyotoGar3Mar. 2011Broad Institute OtoGar3Available
CatfelCat9Nov. 2017Genome Sequencing Center (GSC) at Washington University (WashU) School of Medicine Felis_catus_9.0Available
felCat8Nov. 2014ICGSC Felis_catus_8.0Available
felCat5Sep. 2011ICGSC Felis_catus-6.2Available
felCat4Dec. 2008NHGRI catChrV17eAvailable
felCat3Mar. 2006Broad Institute Release 3Available
ChimppanTro6Jan. 2018Clint_PTRv2Available
panTro5May 2016CGSC Build 3.0Available
panTro4Feb. 2011CGSC Build 2.1.4Available
panTro3Oct. 2010CGSC Build 2.1.3Available
panTro2Mar. 2006CGSC Build 2.1Available
panTro1Nov. 2003CGSC Build 1.1Available
Chinese hamstercriGri1Jul. 2013Beijing Genomics Institution-Shenzhen C_griseus_v1.0Available
Chinese hamster ovary cell linecriGriChoV2Jun. 2017Eagle Genomics Ltd CHOK1S_HZDv1Available
criGriChoV1Aug. 2011Beijing Genomics Institute CriGri_1.0Available
Chinese pangolinmanPen1Aug. 2014Washington University (WashU) M_pentadactyla-1.1.1Available
CowbosTau9Apr. 2018USDA ARSAvailable
bosTau8Jun. 2014University of Maryland v3.1.1Available
bosTau7Oct. 2011Baylor College of Medicine HGSC Btau_4.6.1Available
bosTau6Nov. 2009University of Maryland v3.1Available
bosTau4Oct. 2007Baylor College of Medicine HGSC Btau_4.0Available
bosTau3Aug. 2006Baylor College of Medicine HGSC Btau_3.1Available
bosTau2Mar. 2005Baylor College of Medicine HGSC Btau_2.0Available
bosTau1Sep. 2004Baylor College of Medicine HGSC Btau_1.0Archived
Crab-eating macaquemacFas5Jun. 2013Washington University Macaca_fascicularis_5.0Available
DogcanFam5May 2019University of MichiganAvailable
canFam4Mar. 2020Uppsala UniversityAvailable
canFam3Sep. 2011Broad Institute v3.1Available
canFam2May 2005Broad Institute v2.0Available
canFam1Jul. 2004Broad Institute v1.0Available
DolphinturTru2Oct. 2011Baylor College of Medicine Ttru_1.4Available
ElephantloxAfr3Jul. 2009Broad Institute LoxAfr3Available
FerretmusFur1Apr. 2011Ferret Genome Sequencing Consortium MusPutFur1.0Available
Garter snakethaSir1Jun. 2015Washington University Thamnophis_sirtalis-6.0Available
GibbonnomLeu3Oct. 2012Gibbon Genome Sequencing Consortium Nleu3.0Available
nomLeu2Jun. 2011Gibbon Genome Sequencing Consortium Nleu1.1Available
nomLeu1Jan. 2010Gibbon Genome Sequencing Consortium Nleu1.0Available
Golden eagleaquChr2Oct. 2014University of Washington aquChr2-1.0.2Available
Golden snub-nosed monkeyrhiRox1Oct. 2014Novogene Rrox_v1Available
GorillagorGor6Aug. 2019University of WashingtonAvailable
gorGor5Mar. 2016University of Washington GSMRT3Available
gorGor4Dec. 2014Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute gorGor4Available
gorGor3May 2011Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute gorGor3.1Available
Green MonkeychlSab2Mar. 2014Vervet Genomics Consortium 1.1Available
Guinea pigcavPor3Feb. 2008Broad Institute cavPor3Available
Hawaiian monk sealneoSch1Jun. 2017Johns Hopkins University ASM220157v1Available
HedgehogeriEur2May 2012Broad Institute EriEur2.0Available
eriEur1Jun. 2006Broad Institute Draft_v1Available
HorseequCab3Jan. 2018University of LouisvilleAvailable
equCab2Sep. 2007Broad Institute EquCab2Available
equCab1Jan. 2007Broad Institute EquCab1Available
Kangaroo ratdipOrd1Jul. 2008Baylor/Broad Institute DipOrd1.0Available
Malayan flying lemurgalVar1Jul. 2014WashU G_variegatus-3.0.2Available
ManateetriMan1Oct. 2011Broad Institute TriManLat1.0Available
MarmosetcalJac4May 2020Washington University Callithrix_jacchus_cj1700_1.1Available
MarmosetcalJac3Mar. 2009WUSTL Callithrix_jacchus-v3.2Available
calJac1Jun. 2007WUSTL Callithrix_jacchus-v2.0.2Available
MegabatpteVam1Jul. 2008Broad Institute Ptevap1.0Available
MicrobatmyoLuc2Jul. 2010Broad Institute MyoLuc2.0Available
Minke whalebalAcu1Oct. 2013KORDI BalAcu1.0Available
Mousemm39Jun. 2020Genome Reference Consortium Mouse Build 39Available
mm10Dec. 2011Genome Reference Consortium GRCm38Available
mm9Jul. 2007NCBI Build 37Available
mm8Feb. 2006NCBI Build 36Available
mm7Aug. 2005NCBI Build 35Available
mm6Mar. 2005NCBI Build 34Archived
mm5May 2004NCBI Build 33Archived
mm4Oct. 2003NCBI Build 32Archived
mm3Feb. 2003NCBI Build 30Archived
mm2Feb. 2002MGSCv3Archived
mm1Nov. 2001MGSCv2Archived (data only)
Mouse lemurmicMur2May 2015Baylor/Broad Institute Mmur_2.0Available
micMur1Jul. 2007Broad Institute MicMur1.0Available
Naked mole-rathetGla2Jan. 2012Broad Institute HetGla_female_1.0Available
hetGla1Jul. 2011Beijing Genomics Institute HetGla_1.0Available
OpossummonDom5Oct. 2006Broad Institute release MonDom5Available
monDom4Jan. 2006Broad Institute release MonDom4Available
monDom1Oct. 2004Broad Institute release MonDom1Available
OrangutanponAbe2Jul. 2007WUSTL Pongo_albelii-2.0.2Available
ponAbe3Jan. 2018Susie_PABv2/ponAbe3Available
PandaailMel1Dec. 2009BGI-Shenzhen AilMel 1.0Available
PigsusScr11Feb. 2017Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium Sscrofa11.1Available
susScr3Aug. 2011Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium Sscrofa10.2Available
susScr2Nov. 2009Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium Sscrofa9.2Available
PikaochPri3May 2012Broad Institute OchPri3.0Available
ochPri2Jul. 2008Broad Institute OchPri2Available
PlatypusornAna2Feb. 2007WUSTL v5.0.1Available
ornAna1Mar. 2007WUSTL v5.0.1Available
Proboscis MonkeynasLar1Nov. 2014Proboscis Monkey Functional Genome Consortium Charlie1.0Available
RabbitoryCun2Apr. 2009Broad Institute release OryCun2Available
Ratrn7Nov. 2020Wellcome Sanger Institute mRatBN7.2Available
rn6Jul. 2014RGSC Rnor_6.0Available
rn5Mar. 2012RGSC Rnor_5.0Available
rn4Nov. 2004Baylor College of Medicine HGSC v3.4Available
rn3Jun. 2003Baylor College of Medicine HGSC v3.1Available
rn2Jan. 2003Baylor College of Medicine HGSC v2.1Archived
rn1Nov. 2002Baylor College of Medicine HGSC v1.0Archived
RhesusrheMac10Feb. 2019The Genome Institute at Washington University School of Medicine Mmul_10Available
rheMac8Nov. 2015Baylor College of Medicine HGSC Mmul_8.0.1Available
rheMac3Oct. 2010Beijing Genomics Institute CR_1.0Available
rheMac2Jan. 2006Baylor College of Medicine HGSC v1.0 Mmul_051212Available
rheMac1Jan. 2005Baylor College of Medicine HGSC Mmul_0.1Archived
Rock hyraxproCap1Jul. 2008Baylor College of Medicine HGSC Procap1.0Available
SheepoviAri4Dec. 2015ISGC Oar_v4.0Available
oviAri3Aug. 2012ISGC Oar_v3.1Available
oviAri1Feb. 2010ISGC Ovis aries 1.0Available
ShrewsorAra2Aug. 2008Broad Institute SorAra2.0Available
sorAra1Jun. 2006Broad Institute SorAra1.0Available
SlothchoHof1Jul. 2008Broad Institute ChoHof1.0Available
SquirrelspeTri2Nov. 2011Broad Institute SpeTri2.0Available
Squirrel monkeysaiBol1Oct. 2011Broad Institute SaiBol1.0Available
TarsiertarSyr2Sep. 2013WashU Tarsius_syrichta-2.0.1Available
tarSyr1Aug. 2008WUSTL/Broad Institute Tarsyr1.0Available
Tasmanian devilsarHar1Feb. 2011Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Devil_refv7.0Available
TenrecechTel2Nov. 2012Broad Institute EchTel2.0Available
echTel1Jul. 2005Broad Institute echTel1Available
Tree shrewtupBel1Dec. 2006Broad Institute Tupbel1.0Available
WallabymacEug2Sep. 2009Tammar Wallaby Genome Sequencing Consortium Meug_1.1Available
White rhinoceroscerSim1May 2012Broad Institute CerSimSim1.0Available
VERTEBRATES
African clawed frogxenLae2Aug. 2016Int. Xenopus Sequencing ConsortiumAvailable
American alligatorallMis1Aug. 2012Int. Crocodilian Genomes Working Group allMis0.2Available
Atlantic codgadMor1May 2010Genofisk GadMor_May2010Available
BudgerigarmelUnd1Sep. 2011WUSTL v6.3Available
ChickengalGal6Mar. 2018GRCg6 Gallus-gallus-6.0Available
galGal5Dec. 2015ICGC Gallus-gallus-5.0Available
galGal4Nov. 2011ICGC Gallus-gallus-4.0Available
galGal3May 2006WUSTL Gallus-gallus-2.1Available
galGal2Feb. 2004WUSTL Gallus-gallus-1.0Available
CoelacanthlatCha1Aug. 2011Broad Institute LatCha1Available
Elephant sharkcalMil1Dec. 2013IMCB Callorhinchus_milli_6.1.3Available
Fugufr3Oct. 2011JGI v5.0Available
fr2Oct. 2004JGI v4.0Available
fr1Aug. 2002JGI v3.0Available
LampreypetMar3Dec. 2017University of Kentucky Pmar_germline 1.0Available
petMar2Sep. 2010WUGSC 7.0Available
petMar1Mar. 2007WUSTL v3.0Available
LizardanoCar2May 2010Broad Institute AnoCar2Available
anoCar1Feb. 2007Broad Institute AnoCar1Available
MedakaoryLat2Oct. 2005NIG v1.0Available
Medium ground finchgeoFor1Apr. 2012BGI GeoFor_1.0 / NCBI 13302Available
Nile tilapiaoreNil2Jan. 2011Broad Institute Release OreNil1.1Available
Painted turtlechrPic1Dec. 2011IPTGSC Chrysemys_picta_bellii-3.0.1Available
SticklebackgasAcu1Feb. 2006Broad Institute Release 1.0Available
TetraodontetNig2Mar. 2007Genoscope v7Available
tetNig1Feb. 2004Genoscope v7Available
Tibetan frognanPar1Mar. 2015Beijing Genomics Institute BGI_ZX_20015Available
TurkeymelGal5Nov. 2014Turkey Genome Consortium v5.0Available
melGal1Dec. 2009Turkey Genome Consortium v2.01Available
X. tropicalisxenTro9Jul. 2016JGI v.9.1Available
xenTro7Sep. 2012JGI v.7.0Available
xenTro3Nov. 2009JGI v.4.2Available
xenTro2Aug. 2005JGI v.4.1Available
xenTro1Oct. 2004JGI v.3.0Available
Zebra finchtaeGut2Feb. 2013WashU taeGut324Available
taeGut1Jul. 2008WUSTL v3.2.4Available
ZebrafishdanRer11May 2017Genome Reference Consortium GRCz11Available
danRer10Sep. 2014Genome Reference Consortium GRCz10Available
danRer7Jul. 2010Sanger Institute Zv9Available
danRer6Dec. 2008Sanger Institute Zv8Available
danRer5Jul. 2007Sanger Institute Zv7Available
danRer4Mar. 2006Sanger Institute Zv6Available
danRer3May 2005Sanger Institute Zv5Available
danRer2Jun. 2004Sanger Institute Zv4Archived
danRer1Nov. 2003Sanger Institute Zv3Archived
DEUTEROSTOMES
C. intestinalisci3Apr. 2011Kyoto KHAvailable
C. intestinalisci2Mar. 2005JGI v2.0Available
ci1Dec. 2002JGI v1.0Available
LanceletbraFlo1Mar. 2006JGI v1.0Available
S. purpuratusstrPur2Sep. 2006Baylor College of Medicine HGSC v. Spur 2.1Available
strPur1Apr. 2005Baylor College of Medicine HGSC v. Spur_0.5Available
INSECTS
A. melliferaapiMel2Jan. 2005Baylor College of Medicine HGSC v.Amel_2.0Available
apiMel1Jul. 2004Baylor College of Medicine HGSC v.Amel_1.2Available
A. gambiaeanoGam3Oct. 2006International Consortium for the Sequencing of Anopheles Genome AgamP3Available
anoGam1Feb. 2003IAGP v.MOZ2Available
D. ananassaedroAna2Aug. 2005Agencourt Arachne releaseAvailable
droAna1Jul. 2004TIGR Celera releaseAvailable
D. erectadroEre1Aug. 2005Agencourt Arachne releaseAvailable
D. grimshawidroGri1Aug. 2005Agencourt Arachne releaseAvailable
D. melanogasterdm6Aug. 2014BDGP Release 6 + ISO1 MTAvailable
dm3Apr. 2006BDGP Release 5Available
dm2Apr. 2004BDGP Release 4Available
dm1Jan. 2003BDGP Release 3Available
D. mojavensisdroMoj2Aug. 2005Agencourt Arachne releaseAvailable
droMoj1Aug. 2004Agencourt Arachne releaseAvailable
D. persimilisdroPer1Oct. 2005Broad Institute releaseAvailable
D. pseudoobscuradp3Nov. 2004FlyBase Release 1.0Available
dp2Aug. 2003Baylor College of Medicine HGSC Freeze 1Available
D. sechelliadroSec1Oct. 2005Broad Institute Release 1.0Available
D. simulansdroSim1Apr. 2005WUSTL Release 1.0Available
D. virilisdroVir2Aug. 2005Agencourt Arachne releaseAvailable
droVir1Jul. 2004Agencourt Arachne releaseAvailable
D. yakubadroYak2Nov. 2005WUSTL Release 2.0Available
droYak1Apr. 2004WUSTL Release 1.0Available
NEMATODES
C. brennericaePb2Feb. 2008WUSTL 6.0.1Available
caePb1Jan. 2007WUSTL 4.0Available
C. briggsaecb3Jan. 2007WUSTL Cb3Available
cb1Jul. 2002WormBase v. cb25.agp8Available
C. elegansce11Feb. 2013C. elegans Sequencing Consortium WBcel235Available
ce10Oct. 2010WormBase v. WS220Available
ce6May 2008WormBase v. WS190Available
ce4Jan. 2007WormBase v. WS170Available
ce2Mar. 2004WormBase v. WS120Available
ce1May 2003WormBase v. WS100Archived
C. japonicacaeJap1Mar. 2008WUSTL 3.0.2Available
C. remaneicaeRem3May 2007WUSTL 15.0.1Available
caeRem2Mar. 2006WUSTL 1.0Available
P. pacificuspriPac1Feb. 2007WUSTL 5.0Available
OTHER
Sea HareaplCal1Sep. 2008Broad Release Aplcal2.0Available
YeastsacCer3April 2011SGD April 2011 sequenceAvailable
sacCer2June 2008SGD June 2008 sequenceAvailable
sacCer1Oct. 2003SGD 1 Oct 2003 sequenceAvailable
VIRUSES
Ebola ViruseboVir3June 2014Sierra Leone 2014 (G3683/KM034562.1)Available
SARS-CoV-2wuhCor1Jan. 2020SARS-CoV-2 ASM985889v3Available

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/grc

http://genomeref.blogspot.com/


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